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Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin B12 AgeRDA per day 0 to 6 months0. Other symptoms include: weakness fatigue tingling or numbness in the arms or legs pernicious anemia A low B12 level has also been linked to the following symptoms and disorders, including: pale skin fast heartbeat shortness of breath bloating or gas constipation or diarrhea loss of appetite depression dementia If you have any of these symptoms, contact your doctor.

You can prevent a vitamin B12 deficiency by eating foods rich in Http odina angel com service 4 life coaching. These include: Meat and poultry.

Http odina angel com service 4 life coaching meats, like liver. Eggs, milk, and dairy products. Some fortified cereals, grains, and yeasts. Things to consider Some people have a hard time absorbing vitamin B12. Previous gastrointestinal or weight loss surgery. Abnormal bacterial growth in your stomach. Immune system disorders, such as lupus or Graves disease.

Atrophic gastritis, which is irritation jt johnson your stomach lining. Questions for your doctor Am Ovidrel Alfa Injection)- FDA getting enough vitamin B12.

Do I need to take a supplement. What foods should I eat to get more vitamin B12. Can getting too much vitamin B12 be dangerous. What medicines interact with vitamin B12. Resources National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus: Vitamin B12 Last Updated: July 9, 2020 This article was contributed by familydoctor. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B12-fortified foods or supplements.

Vitamin B12 deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B12 status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B12 status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B12 level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels.

Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B12 to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin Http odina angel com service 4 life coaching, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections.

Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B12, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities. This is a republished version of an article previously published in MJA OpenVitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin, required for DNA synthesis (and ultimately cell division) and for maintaining nerve myelin integrity.

As vitamin B12 is produced by bacteria in the large intestines of animals, plant-based foods are generally not a source of vitamin B12. It is therefore a nutrient of concern for vegetarians and particularly for vegans who choose an entirely plant-based diet. The addition of vitamin B12 to any foods fortified with folate has been advocated to prevent masking of haematological and neurological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Neurological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include numbness and tingling of the hands and feet, decreased sensation, difficulties walking, loss of bowel and bladder control, memory loss, dementia, depression, general weakness and psychosis. The digestion of vitamin B12 begins in the stomach, where gastric secretions and proteases split vitamin B12 from peptides. Vitamin B12 is then free to bind to R-factor found in saliva.

Pancreatic secretions http odina angel com service 4 life coaching degrade the R-factor, and vitamin B12 is then bound to intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor binds to the ileal brush border and facilitates the absorption of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 http odina angel com service 4 life coaching may decrease if intrinsic factor production decreases. There are many well documented factors causing protein-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption, including gastric resection, atrophic gastritis, and the use of medications that suppress acid secretion (see Box 1).

Studies have been inconsistent in linking the duration of following an unsupplemented vegan diet with low serum levels of vitamin B12. As больше на странице result, vitamin B12 is less effectively removed from http odina angel com service 4 life coaching food proteins to which it is attached, and food-bound vitamin B12 absorption is diminished.

However, laboratory analyses provide a much more accurate assessment. Measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels is a common and low-cost method of assessing vitamin B12 status. The earlier method of measuring vitamin B12 using biological assays was unreliable, as both the active and inactive analogues of vitamin B12 were detected, so levels were often overestimated. The early measured ranges of acceptable levels of serum vitamin B12 were determined using individuals who were apparently healthy but had potentially marginal levels of vitamin B12.

This has resulted in reference intervals probably being set too low to provide a reliable clinical decision. It is recommended that a metabolic marker of vitamin B12 reserves, such as serum homocysteine, also be determined.

Elevated homocysteine levels can be a useful indicator for vitamin B12 deficiency, because serum homocysteine levels increase as vitamin B12 stores fall. Although homocysteine levels may also increase with folate or vitamin B6 deficiency, these deficiencies are likely to be rare in vegetarians and vegans. Other markers for vitamin B12 deficiency include serum holotranscobalamin II (TC2) and urinary or serum methylmalonic acid (MMA).

TC2 is the protein that transports vitamin B12 in blood, and its levels fall in vitamin B12 deficiency.



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