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Other signs of advanced bladder cancer are loss of appetite, weight loss, feeling tired, bone pain, and swelling in the feet. Anyone with blood in the urine (either gross or microscopic hematuria) should have other testing done.

Often, the first нажмите для продолжения that is done is a urine cytology, which looks at the urine under a microscope to find abnormal appearing cells. If these cells are seen, a diagnosis of cancer may be made. However, sources of protein test does not detect all cases of bladder cancer. Though the above tests are useful, the most important test for diagnosis and staging is a cystoscopy.

A fiberoptic camera is placed страница the bladder, going through the urethra.

Cystoscopy allows the provider to see the entire bladder and biopsy any suspicious lesions. If the biopsy reveals cancer, a repeat cystoscopy and resection sources of protein a transurethral resection or TURBT) is done to see the whole tumor and if it has started to spread. If you are diagnosed with cancer, you will also have a complete physical done. Your provider will tell you what tests you need to have done to help determine the extent of the cancer and if it has spread.

Cancer staging describes how much the cancer has grown and invaded sources of protein area, explaining the extent of the disease. Bladder cancer is often found at an early stage, as hematuria starts early in the course of the disease. Sometimes bladder cancer can advance to invasive disease before causing symptoms.

To best understand staging, you need to know how cancer spreads and advances in stage. Cancers can spread and disrupt how normal organs work. Bladder cancers often begin very superficially, involving only the lining of the bladder. Bladder cancers can invade the sources of protein wall, involving the muscular layers of the wall.

As bladder cancer grows it can invade the entire way through the wall and into the fat surrounding the bladder or even into other organs (prostate, uterus, vagina). This local extension is the most common way bladder cancer sources of protein. When sources of protein spreads to another area in the body, that area is called metastasis.

Cancer can also spread through the lymph system and the bloodstream. Bladder cancer often spreads locally or to lymph nodes before spreading distantly, though this is not always the case.

The lungs and bones are the most common areas for metastases sources of protein develop. When bladder cancer spreads to another area, sources of protein is still bladder cancer.

For instance, if it spreads to the lung, sources of protein is not called lung cancer, but bladder cancer that has metastasized to the lung. If we look at the affected lung tissue источник статьи a microscope, it will look like bladder cancer cells. Cancer can also spread through the lymph system.

The lymph system includes lymph nodes and several organs found all over the body. When cancer cells spread into the lymph system, they can travel to lymph nodes in other areas of the body and start new sites of cancer. This is called lymphatic spread. Bladder cancer can spread this way. If it does, it usually first spreads to the lymph nodes in the pelvis around the bladder (called perivesicular lymph nodes).

From there, it can spread to lymph nodes that are close to major blood vessels that run into the leg and pelvis. The spread of cancer to lymph nodes can be found through a CT scan or during surgery. Bladder cancer can also spread through the bloodstream. Cancer cells gain access sources of protein distant organs via the bloodstream.

The staging system used to describe bladder sources of protein is the "TNM system". The TNM system is used to describe many types of cancers. It has three components:There are two "T" stages that are often reported: the clinical stage, which is sources of protein on the читать больше sources of protein of the patient, and the pathologic stage, which is determined after the tumor is removed during surgery, and the area lymph nodes evaluated.

The staging system is very complex, and the entire staging system is found at the end of this article.



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